The researchers hypothesized that the bulges were leptons: small coins of low value which were common in Israel during the Roman occupation. Even if there were never any coins put on the eyelids of any other dead Jews, that does not negate the presence of the images on the man of the Shroud .
Dating shroud of turin
The author concludes that, although the procedures followed differed substantially from those recommended at a workshop organized by the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, the results are credible.
Although of negligible scientific value, they represent a major public triumph for the AMS method of carbon dating.
It should be noted that the key word in the sentence above is “almost.” As part of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP) three different laboratories in Zurich, Oxford, and Tucson performed independent carbon dating tests.
They all concluded the alleged fake shroud was supposedly manufactured sometime between 12 AD, ostensibly for no other reason than to fool a lot of people and legitimize belief in the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus.
Actually, it has two images, one frontal and one rear, with the heads meeting in the middle.
It has been noted that if the shroud were really wrapped over a body there should be a space where the two heads meet.
Interestingly, the STURP experiments produced a puzzling mix of results.
Tests and analysis eliminated any possibility the image on the fabric had been painted.
Most skeptics think the image is not a burial shroud, but a painting and a pious hoax. In 1988, the Vatican allowed the shroud to be dated by three independent sources--Oxford University, the University of Arizona, and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology--and each of them dated the cloth as originating in medieval times, around 1350.